The rights to freedom of association, assembly and expression are severely restricted in Iran. Vague national security laws, as well as prohibitions on insulting Islam and spreading propaganda, are used by the government to silence dissenting voices.read more
#Iran detains Reza Khandan, husband of jailed rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh. Hours before his arrest, he raised concerns on Facebook about human rights violations in Iran. By what logic is Iran a member of the UN committee overseeing human rights NGOs? https://t.co/due2vhQ7bu— Hillel Neuer (@HillelNeuer) September 6, 2018
Iranian authorities continue to target human rights defenders. On 4th September 2018, human rights defender Reza Khandan, husband to detained prominent human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh was arrested at his home after he refused to appear for questioning. Khandan is facing three charges: assembly and collusion against national security, propaganda against the system, and spreading and promoting [the wearing] of no hijab in society. He is detained in Evin prison, the same prison as Sotoudeh, after he rejected a bail amount of 700 million Iranian Toman (USD$16,630) issued to him.
As previously reported on the CIVICUS Monitor, Soutoudeh was arrested and detained in June for criticising the judiciary, and for acting as a lawyer for women who had been charged for removing their hijabs in public. On 15th August 2018, Sotoudeh was sentenced to five years in prison in absentia. She refused to appear in court to protest her unjust detainment.
Defense attorney Nasrin Sotoudeh is now facing SEVEN "national security" charges as Iran's judiciary continues to build a case against her. She has started a hunger strike and refused to appear in court in protest https://t.co/MKNmIh8Y8m. #FreeNasrin— IranHumanRights.org (@ICHRI) August 27, 2018
On 25th August 2018, Sotoudeh went on a hunger strike to protest against poor treatment of friends and family. Among her complaints was the arrest of Dr. Farhad Meysami, a doctor and human rights defender, who supported the protests against forced hijab. In a letter signed by Soutoudeh, she also protested the illegal searches in her home and her relatives’ homes by authorities looking for evidence on the protests against the hijab
The fate of three women's rights activists who were arbitrarily arrested by the state security forces, has remained unknown.— IRAN HRM (@IranHrm) September 24, 2018
A wave of arrests targeting women activists in #Iran has led to the detainment of Hoda Amid, Najmeh Vahedi, and Rezvaneh Mohammadi in early September pic.twitter.com/PHAIAb7jKr
In September 2018, the Iranian authorities arrested four women human rights defenders. According to reports from the Centre for Human Rights in Iran, lawyer Hoda Amid, sociologist Najmeh Vahedi, and gender studies student Rezvaneh Mohammadi were arrested in connection with training workshops on equal marriage rights and other activities in defence of women’s rights. Amid and Vahedi were arrested by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) Intelligence Organization in Tehran on 1st September 2018, three days before a scheduled training workshop on marriage laws. They were taken to an unknown location. Mohammadi was arrested from her home two days later.
No information regarding the charges or where they are being held have been disclosed, and the families have been denied visits or phone calls.
In what is seen as a worrying spate of arrests targeting women human rights defenders, on 25th September 2018, women’s rights advocate Maryam Azad was arrested by security agents at Tehran’s Imam Khomeini International Airport, after boarding a plane scheduled to fly to Istanbul. The reason for her arrest is not known.
“Iranian authorities continue to dig a hole for their domestic and international credibility as they lock up scores of lawyers and activists for the ‘crime’ of defending citizens’ fundamental rights…at a time when everyday life is increasingly difficult for millions of Iranians, rights advocates should be an essential part of solving collective problems, instead of a primary target of the government’s crackdown.”
Human rights defenders currently in detention in Iran have also been targeted. According to Amnesty International, jailed human rights defender Arash Sadeghi, who is suffering from cancer, has been deliberately deprived of the specialist medical care health professionals which he desperately requires. Sadeghi has been in imprisonment since June 2016, serving two separate prison terms totalling 19 years. Amnesty International describes Sadeghi's ill-treatment as punishment by authorities for his human rights work, including communicating with Amnesty International and providing the organisation with information on the human rights situation in Iran.
Amnesty international’s Philip Luther, Research and Advocacy Director for Middle East and North Africa said:
“The Iranian authorities’ treatment of Arash Sadeghi’s is not only unspeakably cruel; in legal terms it is an act of torture.”
In a similar incident, it is also reported that student activists have been deprived of their education in Iran. According to Human Rights Watch several students have been prevented from registering for graduate school or have been forced to sign pledges stating they will not engage in any activism. Over the years, authorities barred student activists from getting into graduate school, by marking their applications with a 'star' indicating that the applications are missing documents. This year, since January 2018, the intelligence Ministry authorities have also reportedly arrested a total of one hundred and fifty students, seventeen of whom have been convicted and sentenced by the courts.
On 18th August 2018, lawyer Qasem Sholehsaadi was arrested by authorities after he said in a video message that he was going to protest outside the Iranian parliament against the Guardian Council’s “approbatory supervision”. He described the approbatory supervision as ‘the root cause of Iran’s problems’. Another lawyer, Arash Keykhosrqavi, who accompanied him in his peaceful protest was also arrested.
The Guardian Council is an un-elected body of twelve Islamic jurists charged with ‘supervising the elections of the Assembly of Experts for Leadership, the President of the Republic, Parliament, and the direct recourse to public opinion and referenda’. Over the years, the council has reportedly extended its powers to bar political candidates from running for office.
On 31st August 2018, two more human rights defenders; Farokh Forouzan and Payam Derafshan, who had attended a gathering at the house of imprisoned lawyer, Keykhosrqavi (mentioned in above paragraph), were reportedly arrested by Iranian authorities. Derafshan represents Nasrin Sotoudeh, who has been in detention since 13th June 2018.
Back in April, journalist Amir Hossein Miresmaili was arrested for a tweet criticizing Ayatollah Alamolhoda. Now he's been sentenced to 10 years jail, 2 years ban on leaving #Iran and media activity, plus a fine!— Tavaana توانا (@Tavaana) August 20, 2018
more on April arrest: https://t.co/s5tdq2xdER pic.twitter.com/6p6hVMlL5x
As Iranian authorities continue to target human rights defenders, journalists too have not been spared. According to Reporters without borders (RSF), on 22nd August 2018, journalist Amir Hossein Miresmaili was sentenced to ten years imprisonment for a post on social media. The post on Twitter, indirectly criticized Ayatollah Sayyid Ahmad Alamolhoda who is the supreme leader Ali Khamenei’s representative in the city of Mashhad. Miresmaili was convicted for “insulting the sacredness of Islam,” “insulting government agents and officials,” “publishing false information designed to upset public opinion” and “publishing immoral articles contrary to public decency.” He was also sentenced to a two-year ban on journalistic activity on social networks on completing the jail term.
Reza Moini, the head of RSF Iran/Afghanistan’s desk said:
“This utterly excessive sentence is clearly designed to intimidate journalists active on social networks”. Afflicted by corruption and the current crisis, the Islamic Republic is using all possible means to silence independent media voices. But it is precisely its censorship of the media, control of Internet content and arrests of journalists – in other words, the policy of suppressing media freedom in effect since the 1979 revolution – that is one of the causes of this crisis.”
August 25- Baneh, #Kurdistan province W #Iran— ALI (@AliSalari1965) August 25, 2018
The branch 102 of Criminal court condemned Shoja Hossein Zadeh, director of the Baneh news Telegram Channel to 74 lashes. #HumanRIghts @AmnestyIran pic.twitter.com/3VxeKAgArV
Authorities also continue to tighten the reins on online censorship. Shoja Hossein Zadeh, a journalist in Baneh, a city in Kurdistan province, was sentenced to seventy four lashes by a local criminal court in July on a charge of insulting President Hassan Rouhani. Zadeh, who runs the Baneh News channel on the Telegram messaging service, had published a satirical article accusing the president of not keeping his election promises.
Freedom of association is strictly controlled by the authorities, despite conditional constitutional protection of this right. Organisations whose activities are considered uncontroversial and non-political – such as those providing services to alleviate poverty – are generally allowed to operate freely.
Freedom of association is strictly controlled by the authorities, despite conditional constitutional protection of this right. Organisations whose activities are considered uncontroversial and non-political – such as those providing services to alleviate poverty – are generally allowed to operate freely. However, other organisations, in particular those which work on civil and political rights, routinely face threats and intimidation, the imposition of arbitrary and unreasonable requirements, raids and shut-downs, and the arbitrary arrest and detention of members. Independent labour unions are outlawed.
While the constitution specifies that assemblies may be held where they are not “detrimental to the fundamental principle of Islam,” the reality is that only assemblies sanctioned by the government are allowed to take place.
While the constitution specifies that assemblies may be held where they are not “detrimental to the fundamental principle of Islam,” the reality is that only assemblies sanctioned by the government are allowed to take place. Those which are considered to be anti-regime, or express dissenting views, are dispersed and organizers and participants detained. For example, on 22 July 2015, authorities arrested dozens of teachers who planned a demonstration in front of the parliament building in Capital, Tehran, to protest the recent arrest of their colleagues involved in union activities. All of the demonstrators were eventually released without charge.
Iran is one of the most censored countries in the world. Criticism of the system of government, its members and institutions, as well as the supreme leader and religion, are not tolerated. Both traditional press and the internet are tightly censored, and authorities exercise control over content and reporting.
Iran is one of the most censored countries in the world. Criticism of the system of government, its members and institutions, as well as the supreme leader and religion, are not tolerated. Both traditional press and the internet are tightly censored, and authorities exercise control over content and reporting. Media outlets which fall foul of the Government of Iran may be closed or have their publishing licenses suspended. The government also uses mass and arbitrary detention to silence dissent. 19 journalists were jailed in 2015, making Iran the seventh worst jailer of journalists in the world. They were prosecuted primarily on national security charges such as "espionage," "acting against national security," and "cooperation with foreign embassies", as well as for crimes such as “insulting Islam”, or “spreading propaganda”. In recent years, the government has targeted online activity, blocking scores of websites and arresting and imprisoning bloggers and individuals on the basis of their online expression.