Having come to power through a coup in 2014, Thailand’s military junta continues to extend its powers, thus limiting the space for independent dissent and civil society activism. The junta, through the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), maintains absolute power in Thailand under the controversial Article 44.read more
As Thailand inches closer to holding long-delayed elections, peaceful protesters , government critics and opposition politicians continue to face investigations and charges
In September 2018, Thailand inched closer to holding long-delayed elections, after new regulations on the polls were enacted. The measures, that were signed into law by King Maha Vajiralongkorn and published in the Royal Gazette, require an election to be called between February and May 2019.
Thailand's latest Constitution and election rules limit the power of large political parties and prevent any one party from getting an overly large majority. Voters will select MPs to represent them in 350 constituencies nationwide. Parties that may not win many of these seats will have a chance to fill the other 150 party-list seats in the 500-seat Lower House.
The ruling National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) has relaxed the ban, allowing political parties to hold meetings to select party executives, recruit members, give opinions on the demarcation of constituencies, and conduct primary votes to choose poll candidates
However, human rights groups have called on Thailand’s military junta to immediately lift all restrictions on fundamental freedoms so that upcoming national elections can be free and fair. Current laws, policies, and practices of the ruling National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), which seized power in May 2014, do not permit political parties to freely organize, express their views, or campaign.
On 27th September 2018, prosecutors charged six pro-election activists who rallied on Ratchadamnoen Avenue in February 2018 with sedition. The court later granted them bail but warned they would be fined 200,000 baht (USD 6,076) if they breach the temporary release conditions.
The six were Sirawith Seritiwat, Anon Nampa, Chonthicha Jaengreo, Sukrit Piansuwan, Nattaa Mahattana and Karn Pongprapapan. They were charged with sedition under Section 116 of the Penal Code and violating an NCPO order banning political assembling of more than five. Along with some 400 people, the protesters demanded for an early general election at the Democracy Monument on 10th Feb 2018. Sedition charges carry a maximum sentence of seven years in prison.
Eight pro-democracy protest leaders were released on their own recognisance Thursday after being indicted for sedition in the South Bangkok Criminal Court. #Thailand #activism #junta https://t.co/BIGyk9FS6s— Zashnain Zainal (@bedlamfury) November 1, 2018
Eight pro-democracy protest leaders were indicted on 1st November 2018 for sedition at the South Bangkok Criminal Court. They are also accused of violating the junta’s ban on political gatherings and the Public Assembly Act for protests earlier this year. The defendants were released without having to post any bail. Among those indicted include Rangsiman Rome, Nuttaa Mahattana, Netiwit Chotiphatphaisal, Ekachai Hongkangwan and Sirawith Seritiwat.
There were involved in protests during the fourth anniversary of the military coup in May 2018, where hundreds of pro-democracy activists participated in the peaceful protest in Bangkok calling for an end to military rule. The protesters had also called for elections to be held by November 2018, to fulfill commitments previously made by the military government.
On 26th October 2018, Thai police accused a rap group of defaming the country and threatened to charge them under the Computer Crimes Act, which prohibits computer information “inconsistent with the truth, undermines national security or causes public panic”.
The music video song “Prathet Ku Me” (“What My Country Has Got”) by Rap Against Dictatorship which was uploaded to YouTube shows different individuals rap about social and political issues, especially those surrounding military coups. The backdrop in the video displayed a scenes of the 1976 massacre of pro-democracy student protestors by security forces. The video garnered over 21 million views in just seven days and the hashtag #MyCountrysGot has also gone viral, generating a debate on issues facing the country.
In response, Human Rights Watch called on the authorities to immediately drop their criminal investigation. saying:
“The Thai junta’s investigation of Rap Against Dictatorship shows that the group’s song and music video struck a raw nerve…taking unwarranted criminal action against the group using oppressive laws will go a long way to proving the rappers’ point.”
The draconian Computer Crimes Act gives broad powers to authorities to restrict online speech and enforce surveillance and censorship. The NCPO has often prosecuted people who post critical commentary about the junta on the internet under article 14 of the Computer Crimes Act regarding “distorted” and “false” information harmful to national security or public order, with violators facing up to five years in prison.
Outrageous #Thai gov't action to force cancellation of @FCCThai event to discuss #Burma's crimes against humanity vs #Rohingya is a new low for #Thailand's censorship of media. Why are Thai generals defending the indefensible in #Myanmar? #FCCT statement: https://t.co/wlCSwSFunp pic.twitter.com/75CAja7gZO— Phil Robertson (@Reaproy) September 12, 2018
On 11th September 2018, police shut down a forum organised by foreign journalists to discuss whether senior military officers in Myanmar should face justice for alleged human rights violations committed by their forces. About a dozen policemen showed up ahead of the scheduled panel discussion at the Foreign Correspondents' Club of Thailand and ordered the panellists not to speak.
Police at the event handed over a letter requesting that the panel discussion entitled "Will Myanmar's Generals Ever Face Justice for International Crimes?" be cancelled because “it could damage national security, affect foreign relations and a give a third party the opportunity to create unrest”.
Some 700,000 Rohingya fled across the border to Bangladesh after the Myanmar army launched a counter-insurgency campaign in response to attacks by Rohingya militants in August 2017. In August 2018, a specially-appointed UN human rights team recommended that Myanmar military leaders should be prosecuted for genocide against the Rohingya. Critics of Burma's military have also accused it of carrying out ethnic cleansing and other war crimes.
It is believed to be the sixth-time police have forced a cancellation of one of the group's programs since Thailand's military seized power from an elected government in 2014. Politically sensitive events in other venues have also been stopped.
On 14th September 2018, the military charged four people with sedition after seizing t-shirts allegedly promoting republicanism. The arrests began on 6th September 2018 when authorities found a woman in possession of 400 T-shirts promoting the "Thai Federation" movement that seeks to turn the constitutional monarchy into a republic. Three of those arrested have been released on bail, according to a representative from the Thai Lawyers for Human Rights. Speaking about republicanism is off-limits in Thailand, where even perceived criticism of the monarchy can lead to 15 years in prison under draconian lese majeste laws.
A report by the UN Human Rights Council issued on 13th September 2018 identified Thailand, as among 38 countries where there has been reprisals and intimidation "against civilians who cooperate with the United Nations to uphold human rights”.
The report, based on information gathered from 1st June 2017 to 31st May 2018, details the retaliation against human rights defenders on a country by-country basis, including allegations of killing, torture and ill-treatment, arbitrary arrests and detention, surveillance, criminalisation, and public stigmatisation campaigns targeting victims and human rights defenders.
With regards to Thailand, the report highlights the cases of Thai human rights lawyer Sirikan Charoensiri, and Lahu indigenous rights defender Maitree Chamroensuksakul. Sirikan was charged with allegedly giving false information regarding a criminal offence in August 2017 after she participated in the March 2017 session of the Human Rights Committee. She also faced charges of sedition and violating the National Council for Peace and Order's ban on political activities, for representing 14 student activists arrested by the authorities for their alleged participation in peaceful protests in June 2015.
Maitree's house was raided by police, and his family members arrested and charged with drug possession two days after he met a UN special rapporteur to discuss the situation of human rights defenders in 2017.
On 18th September 2018, authorities charged Thanathorn Juangroongruangkit, the leader of the newly-formed Future Forward party and two senior members for allegedly spreading false information about the ruling military government on Facebook. The three leaders of the party were charged under the Computer Crime Act, considered draconian by government critics for its denial of freedom of speech online.
They are accused of giving false information in a 29th June 2018 speech by Thanathorn that was posted on Facebook, in which they had alleged that the military government was recruiting members of major political parties to join new parties set up in support of it. If convicted under the law, the Future Forward trio face hefty fines and up to five years in jail. The military government-backed revised Thai constitution bans anyone convicted of a criminal offence from running as a legislator.
Pavin Chachavalpongpun, a political science professor at Kyoto University and a prominent critic of the military government said “the charge is politically motivated. It's a cheap ploy to eliminate political opponents of the state”.
Previously, in May 2018, three politicians were charged with sedition for holding a press conference, criticising the military junta. The politicians from the Pheu Thai party include Watana Muangsook, Chaturon Chaisang and Chusak Sirini. Five other party leaders were also charged with violating the ban on gatherings for attending.
Report launch on reprisals against environmental defenders in Loei province #Thailand who endured and fought a decade of gold mining environmental impacts. "They are not only victims of human rights violations, but also the agent of change," says @SuthareeW pic.twitter.com/enyWU6lguj— Nitcha H (@pudjeebnh) October 2, 2018
On 2nd October 2018, Fortify Rights issued a new report on how Thai authorities and a Thai gold-mining company have targeted and violated the rights of local environmental defenders involved in opposing a gold mine in northeastern Thailand for more than a decade,
The new 90-page report, “We Fight to Protect Our Home:” Reprisals Against Environmental Defenders in Loei Province, Thailand, documents ten years of abuses against a mining-affected community in Wang Sa Phung District, Loei Province. Documented abuses and violations include judicial harassment, arbitrary detention, death threats, and violations of the rights to freedom of expression, peaceful assembly, and a healthy environment.
The report also exposes unchecked environmental contamination of rivers and streams surrounding the gold mine as well as impunity for a coordinated, violent attack by a soldier-led masked militia against community members in 2014.
Amy Smith, Executive Director of Fortify Rights said:
"This community is facing ongoing reprisals for standing up for their environment, their rights, and their livelihoods for years…the Thai government must ensure environmental defenders can carry out their legitimate work without fear of abuse or retaliation.”
Fortify Rights recommended that the authorities repeal or amend laws and orders that are incompatible with the rights to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly, including Sections 326 to 328 of Thailand’s 1956 Criminal Code, the 2015 Public Assembly Act, and National Council for Peace and Order No. 3/2558 and ensure accountability for serious human rights violations.
2 UN refugees Ms Wu Yuhua (a.k. Ai Wu)& MR Yang Chong (a couple) were detained y’today inThailand Immigration jail facing imminent deportation 2 #China pray!正在跟国会和国务院协商杨崇吴玉华（艾乌）夫妇面临因CCP压力被泰国强迫遣返回中国遭酷刑的急难。祷告上帝是避难所磐石和随时的帮助 pic.twitter.com/KUfLnxbdyv— Bob Fu傅希秋 (@BobFu4China) August 30, 2018
According to Amnesty International,activists and married couple Wu Yuhua better known as Ai Wu and Yang Chong were detained in Bangkok on 29 August 2018 and are at risk of forcible return to China.
On that day, they had tried to assist another Chinese activist to submit a petition for refugee protection to the New Zealand embassy and subsequently accompanied the activist to a local police station. There, police found that the couple had no valid travel documents and charged Wu with “illegal entry” and “illegal stay” and Yang with “overstaying”. Wu was released on bail on 21st September due to her poor health condition, but Yang remains in detention.
Before the couple left China for Thailand in 2015, Yang was arbitrarily detained and tortured by the Chinese authorities for his peaceful activism in southern China to promote human rights. Wu is also a human rights defender who has worked on behalf of other human rights defenders. The couple were recognized as refugees by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in September 2016. While in Thailand, they continued their activism on China’s human rights.
Despite the fact that Thailand has made several international commitments on freedom of association, the interim constitution vetoes the right of people in Thailand to freely associate. While Thailand has traditionally had a robust civil society sector, the military has taken steps to curtail the independent operation of civic groups.
Despite the fact that Thailand has made several international commitments on freedom of association, the interim constitution vetoes the right of people in Thailand to freely associate. While Thailand has traditionally had a robust civil society sector, the military has taken steps to curtail the independent operation of civic groups. The interim constitution gives the government sweeping powers to arbitrarily dissolve, harass and impede the operation of critical CSOs. The military has orchestrated a systematic clampdown on political opposition and rights groups while considerably restricting the ability of Thai trade unions to mobilise independently. Human rights defenders are particularly susceptible to persecution by the government. On 26th July 2016, authorities arrested local human rights defenders Somchai Homla-or, Pornpen Khongkhachonkiet, and Anchana Heemmim and charged them with defamation and computer crimes for documenting 54 allegations of torture and human rights abuses. Many claim their trial is a brazen attempt to silence monitoring efforts.
In 2014 the military outlawed political protests and banned unsanctioned gatherings of more than 5 people. While some protests did take place during the coup’s blanket ban, freedom of assembly has been seriously impeded from 2015 onwards.
In 2014 the military outlawed political protests and banned unsanctioned gatherings of more than 5 people. While some protests did take place during the coup’s blanket ban, freedom of assembly has been seriously impeded from 2015 onwards. The law on public assemblies in 2015 stipulates that protesters now need to seek prior permission before an assembly and adhere to regulations governing when and where protests can take place. The limited number of protests that do go ahead usually take place in an incredibly tense atmosphere; on 5th July 2016, more than 1,000 people gathered on the streets of Bangkok to voice their opposition to the military junta, leading to clashes with heavily armed security forces. In this repressive environment, people in Thailand have found alternative ways to mobilise. At one university, students organised “sandwich parties” where groups gather under the guise of having lunch together. The authorities responded by declaring “eating sandwiches with political intent” a criminal act. Other groups have used salutes to display their desire for significant political reform in Thailand.
The military government has carried out a meticulous campaign to curtail freedom of expression since taking power in 2014. As a result, the authorities now exert complete control over journalists, the internet and media outlets.
The military government has carried out a meticulous campaign to curtail freedom of expression since taking power in 2014. As a result, the authorities now exert complete control over journalists, the internet and media outlets. Under the law, regulators have powers to shut down media outlets without a right of appeal. The mass intimidation of dissidents, critics and journalists has led to over 800 individuals being sent to “attitude adjustment” programmes run by the government. A carefully implemented campaign has sought to silence anyone opposing the junta by exploiting the lack of an independent judiciary using vague legislation such as insulting the king or state, or defamation. Furthermore, the authorities have even tightened the visa regulations for foreign journalists in a bid to prevent critical voices in the international arena. The media frequently practice self-censorship in order to survive. During the recent referendum on the new constitution, anyone opposing or criticising the draft could be sentenced to ten years in jail. Similarly, cybercrime legislation grants the government sweeping powers to arbitrarily block online content; stamping out one of the last arenas for independent dissent in Thailand.