Civil society in Libya operates amidst one of the world’s most volatile security situations, and in the context of an immense humanitarian crisis in which over 400,000 people have been internally displaced since 2014. Journalists and human rights defenders have been killed or disappeared, and face extreme threats from armed groups, including the Islamic State. Whilst laws exist to protect freedom of assembly and other civic freedoms, the precarious security situation has deterred people from exercising these rights in many areas. Associational life has declined, as civil society actors have faced untenable threats from a range of armed groups.