The right to freedom of association is guaranteed under Zimbabwe’s constitution. However, adherence to this right is not reflected in domestic laws and regulations, nor in practice. Associations are subject to mandatory registration requirements through complex registration procedures, with severe penalties (including fines and imprisonment) for operating as an unregistered group.Associations can be denied legal recognition on broad and politically motivated grounds, with no clear timeframe for review or appeal processes. Foreign funding is restricted for organisations engaged in voter educating programmes, which is matched by hostile government rhetoric against groups that receive foreign funding. NGOs and their leaders are also subject to routine harassment and intimidation.