Independent media and journalists are regularly attacked and operate in a hostile environment. Incidents like the defamation campaign against journalist Yadira Peláez, and public vilification of media outlets by government officers exemplify this trend. In addition, the government's use of public advertisement as a tool to censor media have been criticised by international institutions. In the context of Bolivia’s media environment, which has a high concentration of private sector ownership, the 2011 telecommunications law sought a more balanced distribution of broadcast licenses among the state, private companies, and local and indigenous communities. However, the legislation has been criticised as it falls short of international standards for the protection of freedom of expression.

The Law against Racism and All Forms of Discrimination includes a number of provisions which are vague and restrict freedom of expression, and which could potentially lead to self-censorship. Although a constitutionally recognised right, there is no national law ensuring public access to information held by government bodies, and requests for information are typically denied or delayed.