An uncertain political terrain in Madagascar continues to impact civic space; however, some civil society organisations believe space for civic activism is improving. Despite this perceived improvement, civil society organisations working on environmental issues are still subject to harassment and intimidation. Permits are required to gather and protest, and the authorities sometimes restrict protests in a discriminatory manner, primarily preventing the political opposition from exercising this right. Although conditions for journalists are improving, multiple challenges to free expression remain including a restrictive cybercrime law and low levels of internet access.