The constitution establishes the freedom to express and hold opinions; however, it also imposes restrictions designed aimed at ‘safeguarding the public order, the national dignity, and the security of the state.’ Defamation is a criminal offense, and a cybercrime law extends the offence to online publications. Elections in 2013 marked an improvement in conditions for journalists, and violence against them has declined in recent years. Madagascar does not have access to information legislation and there are no documented cases of government restrictions over the internet; however, most of the population still does not have online access.