Freedom of association is guaranteed under the constitution. Civil society is comprised of both incorporated and unincorporated associations. The principal legislation governing CSOs is the Associations Incorporation Act 1966, however other laws affect the formation and operation of CSOs and the registration requirements are different depending on each statute. In practice, CSOs in Papua New Guinea enjoy a relatively free operating environment and are active on a wide range of social causes. However, land, environmental and anti-corruption activists have faced threats and arrest for opposing development of extractive projects. In addition, women human rights defenders encounter gender-related risks for their activism.