In spite of a large, vibrant and outspoken civil society, the Egyptian state’s respect for human rights and civic freedoms remains at an acute crisis point. Journalists and human rights defenders exercising their right to freedom of expression are routinely harassed, detained, prosecuted and jailed as part of a systemic crackdown on dissent. Civil society organisations, journalists and academics have been targeted through asset freezes and travel bans by state authorities. The right to freedom of assembly continues to be curtailed, with no accountability for the killing of over 800 protesters in Cairo’s Rab’a al-Adawiya Square in 2013 and the continued use of excessive force and arbitrary arrest to disperse and subvert peaceful protests.