The Turkish Constitution guarantees that individuals and groups are able to express their opinions. However, counter terrorism and anti-defamation laws have had a chilling effect on freedom of expression in Turkey. Journalists and citizens alike face serious consequences for expressing critical opinions of the government. 25 journalists have been killed in Turkey since 1992. The internet is also systematically censored by the government and the authorities have previously implemented blanket bans on social media. After the attempted coup in 2016, the authorities have overseen an unprecedented crackdown on independent media and journalists critical of the government, raiding and shutting down over 100 newspapers, magazines and publishers. Critical journalists have been subjected to unwarranted and unjustified harassment such as beatings and arbitrary detentions; over 50 journalists have been detained in the wake of the failed coup.