A strong legal framework for civic space in Afghanistan is undermined in practice by persistent insecurity and attacks on civil society by state and non-state actors, including extremist groups and terrorist organisations. Peaceful protests are generally allowed by the authorities, although continuing conflict and intolerance mean that citizens are less able to gather in public in some remote parts of the country. While some media organisations can express views openly, journalists who criticise the government, attempt to discuss religious values or expose the abuse of women face threats, harassment and violence.